Sunday, 26 May 2019


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The American poet Henry Cuyler Bunner, who was also a renowned novelist and journalist penned this simple poem,” The heart of a Tree”. It tells about the beautiful connection man can weave with nature if he plants a tree. The poet asks certain questions at the beginning and a kind of answering them too in the following lines. This is a poetic device known as hypophora. The poem also hints on the moral obligation human beings have, to make this world a beautiful one.

The poem exalts those human beings who protect nature to be divine and Godly as they create heaven on earth as well. Like the creator, the man also provides home, for thousands of winged creatures and in return enjoy their blissful melodies. By planting trees, he makes this earth greener and habitable. Thus providing the future generations a green and comfortable place.

The life-sustaining rain is the bounty of trees. The man who plants a tree also harvests a good reap as he is indirectly responsible for bringing rain to the earth. A lush green forest is thus formed with his effort and he could have the joy of watching these blessings that no one has ever watched before.

The poet's use of simple diction , alliteration, metaphors and a load of visual images, transferred epithets, personification etc lends the poem a unique beauty of its own.

Indirectly the poet hints us that planting a tree is to honour nature and God above who has blessed us with plentiful bounties.

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The Theme of the poem Daffodils

The most popular poem Daffodils by Williams Wordsworth celebrates the beauty of nature and the joy, the poet derives from such a wonderful sight. The poet and his sister were walking along the shore of a river when they saw this exclusively breathtaking scene of daffodils tossing their heads in gentle breeze. The mind of the poet was overwhelmed with joy and he stood watching them for a while. For Wordsworth, nature was everything. He turns every time to nature to find answers to all his confusions. The poet, has stated that a poem should be written recollecting a mind-boggling scene some time later. Hence this specific poem was writing as per his diction. He went home and was taking rest. The daffodils then forced their entry into his mind. He couldn't help writing this beautiful poem then. Nature makes him happy all the time. The memories please him and comfort him.

2.I wandered lonely as a cloud
That floats on high o'er vales and hills

What do these lines mean?

The above lines are extracted from the popular Wordsworth poem Daffodils. The poem is all about the beauty of nature and how the poet remains spellbound by the splendor golden daffodils. The poet was walking along the shore with no obvious purpose. It was an aimless leisure walk. He compares himself to a cloud that floats on the sky with no definite purpose. The poet uses here the figure of speech simile to compare himself with the aimless cloud. It is all about a solitary walk together with his sister. The poet has done justice to his words he stated in lyrical ballads. He had an intense emotion stored up in his mind after the breathtaking scene. He is walking around the Lake District of England. The poem is a solid evidence of Wordsworth’s bond with nature. He turns to nature for all his troubles.

3.Ten Thousand saw I at a glance. Explain

The English Romantic poet, Wordsworth, has penned one of the most popular poems of the time. The poet was thrilled to see a host of golden daffodils dancing along the shore. The daffodils seem to dance just like humans and the poet was transported to another world. The flowers were too many in numbers that it felt countless to him. As he walked ahead, he saw more of them. He couldn't control his joy and all that he could word was he saw innumerable numbers of daffodils. The flowers were so bright and shining like the stars that twinkle in the sky. The figure of speech used is hyperbole. It is something that poet uses to exaggerate and to heightens the poetic effect.
Here the poet hasn't actually counted them to ten thousand but he makes the readers believe that there were almost such a huge number of flowers.

4 I gazed and gazed but little thought what wealth the show to me had brought. What does the poet mean by wealth?

The poet Wordsworth was walking along the shore in a solitary mood with his sister, with no definite purpose. He felt himself as free and lonely as a cloud that floats on the sky. He compares himself to the clouds that move aimlessly. But suddenly, he was taken aback by a host of golden daffodils along the shore dancing in a gentle breeze. The show was so spectacular. The flowers in their dance outdid the shining waves and they were way brighter than the twinkling stars. The poet reveled for a while in his bliss. To him, the flowers were a rich storehouse of joy and happiness. He never knew how to express his happiness. Since he was a poet, he couldn't help himself be a part in their joy. He enjoyed the company of the flowers and waves. Nature has been a perennial source of pleasure for this great poet. He went on gazing at the flowers and really was in heaven at that time. But he says that he couldn't imagine how this show would turn fruitful for him. Later when he went home, he recollected this beautiful sight and started penning this beautiful poem which received worldwide appreciation. This was the wealth he was talking about. This wealth could also mean the abundance of happiness he received from those flowers.

5.Explain “jocund company

The poet William Wordsworth, in his poem Daffodils, speaks about the alluring daffodils and their dance along the shore. The beautiful flowers were joyous and were in the company of the waves and the trees and breeze. The whole universe was brimming with beauty. The flowers in their dance excelled the waves. The twinkling stars were nothing compared to the bright and shining golden daffodils. As a poet, Wordsworth could not help himself being happy. It was one of the best companies he ever had. The mere presence of the daffodils also makes the waves near them jump in joy. So, the poet says that such is their jovial company that one may forget all the worldly worries.

6. Explain the term “bliss if solitude”

The poem daffodils tell about one of the blissful experiences of the poet. The poet was walking aimlessly one-day along the shore of a lake and suddenly he saw a host of golden daffodils dancing and tossing their heads in the gentle breeze. The poet was overwhelmed by the show and felt immensely happy. He gazed at them for some time and forgot all his worries for a while. Later when he went back home, he was lying on his couch, and then as if in a flash the daffodils popped up in his mind's eye. The poet could then experience the same pleasure and happiness he had had when he first saw them. He was lying in a pensive mood. The rush of the flowers and those beautiful memories was a bliss for him. The poet once had enjoyed the company of the flour, the waves, and the trees. And even days after the scene, he could still recollect that beauty and make his loneliness bloom in joy. Not only the poet has been inspired by the splendid flowers.

7. Name the poetic devices used in the poem Daffodils.

The poet has used simile, alliteration, personification, and hyperbole.

Ex for simile. I wandered lonely as a cloud
Ex for alliteration. Ten thousand saw I at a glance.
Ex for personification. They outdid the sparkling waves in glee.
Ex for Hyperbole. Ten thousand saw I at a glance.

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Saturday, 4 May 2019


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Sunday, 14 April 2019


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Saturday, 6 April 2019


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Answer the following questions

1. Why do you think the poet uses questions to begin his poem?

The poet uses questions to begin his poem to emphasize the theme he wants to convey to the readers and make it extraordinary. It's not just a  mere act of planting a tree. The poet makes one read in a different sense. He presents things as if they are unknown and very new. We are forced to think, by the poet in what he believes. Thus a simple act becomes too noble and subtle. This poetic technique is known as Hypophora.

2. Explain the line 'He plants a friend of sun and sky.'

The poet Henry Cuyler Bunner, in his beautifully written poem, ”The heart of a Tree”, tells about planting trees and how they are inevitable to the harmonious existence of nature. The tree needs the sun and the sky for its life and in return nourishes them too. There is no perfect nature without the friendship of these three as they are most essential for any life forms.

3.”He plants the flag of breezes free”... What does the poet indicate by the flag of breezes?

The poet says that a man who plants a tree is not only planting a tree but he makes a free breeze possible for everyone. Because a tree once planted will grow in size covered with thick leaves which could generate winds and breeze. The poet indirectly wanted to say that trees give out life-sustaining air. And by doing this act, the man becomes eco-friendly, thus saving the human race from pollution as well.

4. "He plants a home to heaven anigh”. What's implied in this expression?

The following expression is from the poem,” The heart of a Tree”, by the American poet Henry Cuyler Bunner. The poet says that the man who plants a tree also makes possible a shelter for thousands of birds which at the time of sunset croon beautiful songs to the young ones and the feeling is heavenly for the rest of the others. He thus becomes equal to God who is the creator of heaven.

5. What is the meaning of hushed and happy twilight?

The poet Henry Cuyler Bunner, talks about the divine act of planting a tree. He wished to see it in a different way. He says that planting a tree is next to nothing. He who plants a tree also plants thousands of invisible virtues as well. The joyful songs of birds when the mother bird comes back on a quiet evening is a blissful experience. It is similar to heaven. The word ‘hushed’ means a time most probably evening when all the sounds subside and in that quiet and serene eve, the mother bird sings songs which can be called as lullabies to it's your ones. The word’ twilight ‘means the time when evening gives way tonight. A golden hue pervades everywhere. The twilight is imagined as happy here but the happiness spreads everywhere.

6. What is meant by the treble of heaven's harmony?

The poem” The heart of the Tree” is about the benefits of planting a tree. The poet talks about the man who plants a tree and the changes he brings in. He makes tree the abode of happiness for many birds and the happy songs of the birds, sitting on the branches of the tree, emulates heaven. The joyful chirps of the birds replicate the sounds of joyful heaven.

7. How does one can plant cool shade and tender rain?

The poet says that those who plant a tree also plant shades and rain. The poet reminds us that the trees give us shade from the scorching heat and are responsible for the rains. So he becomes an inevitable agent in connecting all the other elements of nature.

8. He plants the glory of the plain.

The poet Henry Cuyler Bunner in his poem “The heart of the Tree“, speaks about the virtues the tree possess. They add the aesthetic glory of a plain with their leaves, flowers, and fruits, in spite of being the life nourishers. A plain surrounded by hilly rocks would seem dry like a desert if there are no trees at all

9. And plants the forest's heritage...
What do you comprehend from the above expression?

The above expression is from the poem, “The Heart of the Tree.” The poet talks about the benefits the tree causes. One who plants a tree secures the future generations by providing them a pollution free world. A tree makes more of them and turns into a forest which can be a legacy for the coming generations. Thus, he keeps aside a valuable treasure.

10.Explain, "The joy that unborn eyes shall see "

The poet Henry Cuyler Bunner says that those who plant trees are part of the process of the cycle of nature. A tree would breed thousands other trees and the forthcoming generations which are yet to born will be overjoyed to accept such a legacy.

11. What does the poet hint by ' He plants, in sap and leaf and wood
In love of home and loyalty
And far-cast thought of civic good "?

The above lines are from the poem “The heart of the Tree”. The poet goes on talking about the nobility of the man who plants a tree. He does good for the common good. He becomes an example instilling in others the need to protect nature and live in a pollution free world. Such a man thinks not only for his immediate good but for the future as well. He is a true human.


“Who in the hollow of his hand
Holds all the growth of all our land.
How can one hold the growth of the land” Explain?

In the above lines, the poet speaks about the man who plants a tree could hold the growth of the land. He indirectly points out that trees are vital in the lives of people. All the growth of humankind depends on trees. Someone who plants a tree thinks much about the world and harmonious existence. Hence, he could foresee the growth of the land.

13. “A nation's growth from sea to sea
Stirs in his heart who plants a tree”... What does the poet mean by this?

The above lines indicate the importance of planting trees in building nations. The resources tree could provide for the growth of a nation is undeniable. Hence someone who plants a tree thinks about the welfare of his nation too. He is discharging his civic duties as well.

14. Find out examples for personification from the poem 'The heart of a Tree. '

Giving personal attributes to inanimate and non-living things are known as personifies. Normally abstract ideas are given such personal traits. For example, the poet personifies The tree in the line, 'a friend of sun and sky'.

15. Find out the figure of speech implied in the line 'hushed and happy twilight '

The figure of speech due in the line "hushed and happy twilight " is known as a transferred epithet. It is a figure of speech where an adjective grammatically qualifies a noun other than the person think it is actually describing.
Here twilight is not supposed to be happy, but the people surrounding it are.

16. Find out an instance of a metaphor from the poem.

Metaphors are figures of speech that compare two distinctly different things indirectly.
The branches of the tree are compared to a flag in the Line, "He plants the flag of breezes free "

17. What is alliteration? Find out an instance for the same from the poem “The heart of a tree"

The repetition of consonant sounds, at the beginning of the words, is called as alliteration. It gives a rhythmic quality to the poem. Example... "He plants a home to heaven high".The use of metaphors lend the poem it's poetic enhancements. Lines tend to be more poetic.

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Thursday, 4 April 2019


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Wednesday, 3 April 2019


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            Stanza – 1
Six humans trapped by happenstance
In dark and bitter cold.
Each possessed a stick of wood,
Or so the story's told.

The poet begins the stanza with a situation in which six humans are put in a situation of the trap and this has happened by chance. The poet reflects their situation of trouble with ‘black and bitter’ indicating the adverse chilling cold weather situation. The poet continuously uses the word humans reflecting them as six different individuals rather than a united group. These six figures are painted with a stick in each hand symbolizing their individual characters and as well as their lease of life upon the condition of how they act with those.

            Stanza – 2
Their dying fire in need of logs,
But the first one held hers back.
For, of the faces around the fire,
She noticed one was black.

Now the situation turns dramatic as they are put around a dying fire which needs the addition of fuel to it to survive. And it so happened that they all had a log of wood. The wise understanding would be to add to the fuel to survive and get saved. But the contrary happened. We get to see the first to decide not to add his log of wood to the dying fire. He does so because he got to see a black sitting around the fire. He was racially prejudiced. He did not want the black man to be benefitted with his log of wood.
Figures of speech used –
            1.         Alliteration - 

            Stanza – 3
The next one looked across the way
Saw one, not of his church,
And could not bring himself to give
The fire his stick of birch.

This stanza shows the bitter side of religious intolerance. The second man got to see a person in the group who did not belong to his religious faith. So he decided not to add his log of wood as it would benefit the man of the different religious order.
Figures of speech used –
            1.         Symbolism – ‘church’ – meaning religious faith.
            2.         Enjambment - …………himself to giveà
                                    à The fire………………….

            Stanza – 4
The third one sat in tattered clothes
He gave his coat a hitch.
Why should his log be put to use
To warm the idle rich.

In this stanza, we get to see a poor person who was in torn, ragged and tattered clothes. He was at a point of view where he was not to be in the same tune with the rich. So he gave a hitch (tightened) to his clothes reflecting mean thought. He reflects his distaste and hatred for the idle rich.
Figures of speech used –
            1.         Alliteration - The third
            2.         Symbolism - Tattered clothes meaning poverty

            Stanza – 5
The rich man just sat back and thought
Of wealth, he had in store,
And keeping all that he had earned
From the lazy, shiftless poor.

This stanza reflects the counter contrary thought to that of the previous stanza. Here is the rich man with his own mean reflection. He kept on thinking about the wealth he had in his store and how to protect that sum of wealth from the shiftless (devoid of ambition) poor.

 Figures of speech used –
            1.         Alliteration – He had

            Stanza – 6
The black man's face bespoke revenge
As the fire passed from his sight,
For he saw in his stick of wood
A chance to spite the white.

This stanza is coined by the poet to reflect the action of revenge. As previously the white man showed his racial hatred and did not ass his stick of wood, now the black man found a way to return the jab. He considered his not adding the stick to the fire as an act of revenge.

Figures of speech used – NIL

            Stanza – 7
And the last man of this forlorn group
Did nought except for gain.
Giving just to those who gave
Was how he played the game.

This stanza reflected how the last man decided to react to the previous five people who decided to stay in negative. The last man too thought of his gain. His policy was to give and help those who do the same. Here the poet has used deliberately the term ‘foreign group’ meaning their situation of being lonely as they could not write them to the requirement of the situation.

 Figures of speech used – NIL
            1.         Alliteration – ‘how he’ | ‘to those’

Stanza – 8
Their sticks held tight in death's stilled hands
Was proof enough of sin;
They did not die from cold without...
They died from cold within.

In the stanza, the poet shows all of the six met their end because of their personal prejudices and mean thoughts. They all clutched to their eyes epitomizing the human sin difficult to forgive. Though the cold weather could have been the reason for their death, they did not die because of the cold outside rather they died for the coldness (lacuna of tolerance and human sympathy) they had inside them.

 Figures of speech used –
1.         Personification -…” held tight in death’s still hands.”
2.         Alliteration- did not die
3.         Antithesis – Line -3 –without | -Line 4-within


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